By:- Gopika Mathur
The term brain drain means when skilled intellectual and technical labor through the movement of such labor to more favorable geographical, economical or professional environments. In simple words it is emigration of scientists, technologists, academics, etc, for better pay, equipment or conditions.
Brain Drain can be of different types:
a. Organizational brain drain: emigration from one organization to the other. For instance an employee shifting from Microsoft to Yahoo.
b. Geographical brain drain: when highly trained individuals shift from one region to another region for instance an engineer who educated from India takes up a job in USA.
c. Industrial brain drain: trained skilled labor moving from one sector to another sector. For example an employee working in private company goes to work in public sector unit.
There have been many historical examples of Brain Drain over the years; it has been observed that many employees have been emigrating from their region to other regions. Majority of employees has immigrated to USA. In India the UNDP estimates that India loses 2 billion$ a year because of the emigration of computer experts to the US. Indian students going abroad for the higher studies costs India a foreign exchange outflow of more than 10 billion $ annually.
Talents play a very vital role in helping any country flourish. The economy of a country that has a large number of world-class scientists and technicians can be more innovative than the others countries don’t have. Different countries should come up with different policies to retain skilled and intellectual people. Another reason of brain drain is that employees who go out on small projects as well out don’t want to come back at times to their hometown. Despite the existence of significant global efforts trying to improve health and healthcare systems in the developing world, the money invested is insufficient as health workers from the developing countries leave their home countries and immigrate to the developed world assuming low-status positions in rich countries.